Loquens https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens <p><strong>Loquens</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a href="https://www.csic.es/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a>, and related to the <a href="http://www.cchs.csic.es/en/node/287002" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Laboratorio de Fonética</a> of the <a href="http://cchs.csic.es/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CCHS</a>, dedicated to analyzing speech from all angles and considering all points of view. The approach is clearly interdisciplinary and is proposed as a tool for the diffusion of the developments from those areas of study where speech analysis is the focus.</p> <p>This journal is open to papers, both theoretical and applied, in the fields of experimental phonetics and theoretical and experimental phonology, information and communication technologies in relation to voice and speech, vocal science, clinical phonetics, pronunciation teaching, speech and interpreting, court phonetics, etc. Articles with a clear cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary profile are particularly welcome, as the ultimate aim of the journal is to highlight the possible connections between the above fields and the advantages of approaching the fact of spoken communication from different points of view. There is also a section of short notes (occasional discussions, comments or responses to articles published in previous issues of this journal).</p> <p>The Editorial Board welcomes proposals for topics and offers to act as guest editor for monographic issues.</p> <p>Founded in 2014, it was created directly as an electronic magazine, publishing in the PDF, HTML y XML-JATS formats.</p> <p><strong>Loquens</strong> is covered by <a title="WOS" href="https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/web-of-science/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="ESCI" href="https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/webofscience-esci/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Emerging Sources Citation Index</a> (ESCI), <a title="SCOPUS" href="https://www.elsevier.com/solutions/scopus" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info.action?id=488628" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERIH Plus</a>, <a href="https://www.redib.org/recursos/Serials/Record/oai_revista2022-loquens" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2021: <strong>0.08</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>262</strong>/275 (Q4, Linguistics)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="http://clarivate.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="http://clarivate.com/scientific-and-academic-research/research-evalution/journal-citation-reports/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;">Interoperability<br /> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. loquens@cchs.csic.es (Revista Loquens) soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es (Soporte Técnico Revistas-CSIC) Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 10th anniversary of Loquens https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/129 Eugenia San Segundo Fernández Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/129 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 A comparative and acoustic analysis of phoneme /g/ in spontaneous speech in Basque Country, Andalusia and Madrid https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/112 <p>In this work, we perform the acoustic analysis of the features of harmonicity, sonority, duration and intensity of each /g/ sound extracted from a sample of spontaneous speech from a corpus collected from recordings of local television programs in Andalusia, Madrid and the Basque Country. This corpus consists of 1292 utterances, in which the velar appears on 151 occasions in different contexts. These sounds are described and categorized thanks to the Praat spectrographic analysis program and a comparison of their features among the three dialectal communities that the corpus contains. The most relevant results allow us to conclude that undescribed realizations of [ɣ] occur in spontaneous speech; that the intensity curves of these approximant sounds yield significant figures for their characterization; and that the frequency of production of the approximant [ɣ] is greater in Andalusia than in Madrid or Euskadi.</p> Alicia Sola Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/112 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Variation in the standard norm: the case of spoken Basque https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/114 <p>La estandarización suele ser un proceso vital en la normalización de las lenguas. La creación de una variante estándar, una variante unificada de la lengua, es una nueva herramienta, un nuevo recurso para los hablantes, a quienes dota de una variante formal, cuidada, de la lengua, para necesidades comunicativas ya existentes o que puedan surgir en el futuro. El estándar del euskera se conoce como&nbsp;<em>Euskara Batua</em>&nbsp;(Euskera Unificado). Este artículo tiene el objetivo de presentar la estandarización de la pronunciación del euskera, entendiendo la creación de la norma como una intervención externa que facilita a los hablantes desarrollar un registro de habla previamente no elaborado.</p> <p>Analizaremos la variación y flexibilidad presentes en las normas para la pronunciación estándar de la lengua vasca, señalando las razones y los criterios (geográficos y sociológicos) en los que se fundamentó la Real Academia de la Lengua Vasca. Asimismo, basándonos en el modelo teórico de la Fonología Natural, argumentaremos la base fonológica de algunas normas. Se mostrará que las decisiones adoptadas en la configuración de algunas normas no coinciden con las argumentaciones fonológicas defendidas por la Fonología Natural en cuanto a la relación entre registros de habla y los tipos de procesos fonológicos.</p> Oroitz Jauregi, Irati Urreta Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/114 Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0200 A corpus study of durational rhythmic measures in the Kalhori variety of Kurdish https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/117 <p>In order to identify between-sentence and between-speaker variabilities, one of the methods used by phoneticians is studying durational rhythmic features. In the present research, to classify speech rhythm of Kalhori, a variety of Kurdish, and to find out about the most appropriate measures for between-sentence and between-speaker rhythmic variability in Kalhori, durational speech rhythmic measures were analyzed. To this end, two speaking styles (read and spontaneous) were explored. The analysis of the read corpus revealed that Kalhori Kurdish rhythm pattern is between stress-timed and syllable-timed. The results indicated that %V (proportion over which speech is vocalic) was the most significant measure for distinguishing between-sentence rhythmic variability in the read corpus, while %V and rateSyl (syllable rate) were the most efficient measures for identifying the between-speaker rhythmic variability in both the read and spontaneous corpus.</p> Nafiseh Taghva, Amirsaeid Moloodi, Vahideh Abolhasanizadeh, Roya Tabei Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/117 Mon, 23 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Durational cues to resyllabification in Spanish https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/111 <p class="abstract-(no-indent)" lang="en-US">Word-final consonants in Spanish are post-lexically resyllabified when followed by an onsetless syllable, e.g. <em>venden aves</em> (‘they sell birds’) is traditionally syllabified as <em>ven.de.na.ves</em> and is considered homophonous with <em>vende naves</em> (‘he sells ships’). This study analyzes such two-word minimal pairs inserted in prosodically equivalent sentences read from a list and provides measurements of the acoustic duration of resyllabified /s/, /n/, and /l/, and of their flanking vowels. A mixed-model analysis showed that, when resyllabified as derived onsets, all three consonants pattern together and show a shorter duration (<em>venden aves</em>) in comparison with canonical onsets (<em>vende naves</em>). This is consistent with the coda position that they occupy in the lexical representation, given the weak nature of codas. However, vowel duration varies according to consonant identity. These results are discussed in terms of the articulatory gestures making up the target consonants and allow to interpret that the resyllabified consonant actually becomes the onset of the following syllable. Therefore, we offer converging evidence of resyllabified consonants acting both as codas and onsets, and consequently we propose they can be analyzed as ambisyllabic.</p> Miguel Jiménez-Bravo, José María Lahoz-Bengoechea Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/111 Thu, 14 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Multiple bursts in non-native and native English: Evidence from twelve L1s https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/125 <p>Voiceless plosives are frequently produced with multiple bursts (MBs), a phenomenon that has substantial implications for voice onset time measurement (VOT) of these consonants. MBs have been noted in previous research, but have not been systematically quantified. The objective of this study was to analyze MBs in non-native English (with data from twelve first languages) and native English, and to discern the effect of MBs on VOT measurement. Further, the potential effects of place of articulation (PoA), gender, speech rate, and age on MBs were explored. Results showed that VOT measurement method in the presence of MBs had a significant effect on the VOT values obtained for the plosives. In addition, MBs were influenced to a large extent by PoA, but not by gender, speech rate, or age. Comparisons between non-native English and native English revealed some significant differences, but in both varieties the analyses of MBs showed overall similar tendencies.</p> Darío Barrera-Pardo Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/125 Thu, 14 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Tonal prominence in the falling intonation of interrogatives and declaratives in Zulia (Venezuela) https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/118 <p>Geolinguistics is concerned with studying linguistic variation in space from various linguistic levels and reflecting it in the so-called linguistic atlases. Given the need to create a multimedia atlas in which to capture the prosody of Romance languages ​​and varieties, the AMPER project (<em>Atlas Multimédia Prosodique de l'Espace Roman</em>) was born in 2002, the first atlas to describe prosody and capture the results in a computer support in the form of a multimedia atlas. One of these varieties is Venezuelan, for whose prosodic study the dialect division proposed by Mora is followed (Los Andes, Los Llanos, Centro, Sur-oriental and Zulia region). In this work, a phonetic-phonological intonational study of Zulia is carried out. The acoustic analysis was conducted with MATLAB and the absolute values of <em>f</em> <sub>0</sub>, extracted in the nucleus of the syllable, were relativized in semitones, determining their perceptual importance from the differential threshold of 1.5 semitones.</p> Chaxiraxi Díaz Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/118 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Production of English Vowel Contrasts in Spanish L1 Learners: A Longitudinal Study https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/119 <p>The present study undertakes a longitudinal examination of forty postgraduate students, native Spanish speakers, during their first year at a UK university. The research focuses on both individual and collective progress in mastering distinctions within English vowel pairs (/iː/-/ɪ/, /ɪ/-/e/, and /uː/-/ʊ/), with a specific focus on adaptations towards achieving native-like English vowel pronunciation, particularly in terms of vowel quality. Prior research indicates that adult Spanish learners encounter difficulties in mastering the intricate linguistic nuances presented by English. The methodology involved recording Spanish-speaking participants reading a list of words (CVC context) at three different time points over a year. The analysis was based on formant frequencies using Praat, and Euclidean distances were calculated to represent the degree of separation between each pair of vowels. Information about external factors potentially influencing the development of vowel productions among speakers was gathered through a language background questionnaire. The outcomes suggested varying rates of advancement within the group, which could be attributed to the diverse levels of exposure and interaction with native English speakers during their year of study in the UK. These results affirm the learning processes in adult L2 production, emphasizing the critical role played by both the quantity and quality of time in the assimilation of pronunciations to novel L2 segments.</p> Maria Gabriela Valenzuela, Peter French Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/119 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Beyond the average: embracing speaker individuality in the dynamic modeling of the acoustic-articulatory relationship https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/116 <p>This paper explores the acoustic-articulatory relationship while considering individual differences in speech production. We aimed to determine whether there is a causal relationship between tongue movements and the contours of the first and second formant frequencies (<em>F</em> <sub>1</sub> and <em>F</em> <sub>2</sub>) employing a hierarchical Bayesian continuous-time dynamic model, which allows for a more direct connection between the acoustic and articulatory measured variables and theories involving dynamicity. The results show predictive tendencies for both formants, where the anteroposterior and vertical tongue movements may predict changes in <em>F</em> <sub>1</sub>, with rising predicting an increase and retraction a decrease; and with tongue fronting and tongue height inversely predicting <em>F</em> <sub>2</sub>. Further, the modeled individual differences showed similar global tendencies, except for the rate of change of <em>F</em> <sub>2</sub>. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the relationship between tongue articulatory variables and formant contours, while accounting for between-speaker variability.</p> <p>The results show predictive tendencies for both formants, where the anteroposterior and vertical tongue movements may predict changes in <em>f</em><sub>1</sub>, with rising predicting an increase and retraction a decrease; and with tongue fronting and tongue height inversely predicting <em>f</em><sub>2</sub>. Further, the modeled individual differences showed similar global tendencies, however with larger error estimates. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the relationship between tongue articulatory variables and formant contours, while accounting for between-speaker variability.</p> Carolina Lins Machado, Lei He Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/116 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Software-assisted identification of non-native pitch elements for Russian-speaking learners of Spanish https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/123 <p>In this paper we present the results of an automatic comparative-contrastive analysis of functional elements of intonational contour (anacrusis, first peak, body, nucleus and final inflection) produced by non-native speakers of Spanish, whose first language is Russian. This analysis was carried out with the Plugin for phonetic-phonological analysis in Spanish (PAFe), a software tool for an instant comparative analysis of a non-native speakers’ pronunciation which takes audio recordings as input and implements multiple intonation comparison algorithms between native and non-native speakers of Spanish to calculate the percentage of similarity in intonation production. We used the intersyllabic analysis function of PAFe in order to identify which functional pitch elements of Russian speaking learners of Spanish -male and female- present more tonal deviations. Our results show that most tonal differences occurred in the body of the <em>f</em> <sub><em>0</em> </sub>contour for female speakers whereas for male speakers the greatest tonal contrast was in the first peak. The obtained data indicate that these pitch elements are potentially challenging for Russian speaking learners of Spanish in their pursuit of acquiring phonetic-phonological competence. In addition, this study allowed us to identify which parameters of PAFe analysis per syllables require further refinement, such as processing of limited intonational spectrum values.</p> Albina Sarymsakova, Patricia Martín-Rodilla Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/123 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100