Loquens https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens <p><strong>Loquens</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a href="https://www.csic.es/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and related to the <a href="http://www.cchs.csic.es/en/node/287002" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Phonetics Laboratory</a> of the <a href="http://cchs.csic.es/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CCHS</a>, dedicated to analyzing speech from all angles and considering all points of view. The approach is clearly interdisciplinary and is proposed as a tool for the diffusion of the developments from those areas of study where speech analysis is the focus.</p> <p>The Journal welcomes theoretical and applied papers in the areas of experimental and general phonetics and theoretical and experimental phonology, vocal science, information and communication technologies related to voice and speech sciences, speech pathologies and clinical phonetics, forensic phonetics, pronunciation teaching, voice performance and radio / TV broadcasting, etc. Special attention is given to those papers with a strong interdisciplinary and cross-curricular emphasis, since the journal's primary goal is to highlight the possible interconnections between the abovementioned fields and to state the advantages gained from addressing speech from various perspectives.</p> <p>The Editors welcome proposals for specific subjects, and also offers from experts to act as guest editors for thematic issues.</p> <p>Founded in 2014, it was born directly as an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS.</p> <p><strong>Loquens</strong> is covered by <a title="WOS" href="https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/web-of-science/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="ESCI" href="https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/webofscience-esci/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Emerging Sources Citation Index</a> (ESCI), <a title="SCOPUS" href="https://www.elsevier.com/solutions/scopus" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info.action?id=488628" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERIH Plus</a>, <a href="https://www.redib.org/recursos/Serials/Record/oai_revista2022-loquens" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2021: <strong>0.07</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI: </strong><strong>262</strong>/274 (Q4, Linguistics)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="http://clarivate.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="http://clarivate.com/scientific-and-academic-research/research-evalution/journal-citation-reports/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Loquens 2386-2637 <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. The perception of multiethnolectal Zurich German: A continuum rather than clear-cut categories https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/82 <p>Since about 2000, the emergence of so-called ‘multiethnolects’ has been observed among adolescents in German-speaking Switzerland; however, a systematic description of these varieties is lacking at present. The few existing perception studies of multiethnolects in other European countries are usually based on two or more predetermined groups that are compared. This paper investigates which labels are used for multiethnolectal Zurich German and how this way of speaking is perceived by adolescents; we adopt a perceptual sociolinguistics approach which focuses on the conceptualizations of lay people rather than on those of linguists.</p> <p>In a rating experiment, 40 adolescents listened to short speech samples of 48 pupils recorded in two different schools in the city of Zurich and were asked to rate the speakers on a 7-point Likert scale according to how multiethnolectal they sounded (<em>not at all – very strongly</em>). The results yielded a perceptual continuum rather than a clear-cut binary categorization [±multiethnolectal]. A smaller follow-up experiment with 12 adult raters (using the same stimuli) yielded a highly significant correlation between the mean rating scores of the two groups of raters.</p> Marie-Anne Morand Sandra Schwab Stephan Schmid Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 7 2 e072 e072 10.3989/loquens.2020.072 Articulatory characterization of the alveolar sibilant fricatives of Basque: Part one https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/81 <p>An articulatory analysis of the two alveolar sibilant fricatives of Basque (&lt;z&gt; and &lt;s&gt;) is presented, based on fifteen collections of 2D and 3D magnetic resonance images. By applying a set of phonetic, qualitative and quantitative parameters, two articulatory models for &lt;z&gt; and three for &lt;s&gt; are identified, and the procedures used to distinguish between them are examined. The main models are: dorsal denti-alveolar for &lt;z&gt; and apico-alveolar for &lt;s&gt;. Due to its length, the work is presented in two separate parts.</p> Alexander Iribar Ibabe Rosa Miren Pagola Petrirena Itziar Túrrez Aguirrezabal Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 7 2 e073 e073 10.3989/loquens.2020.e073 Characterizing speech rhythm using spectral coherence between jaw displacement and speech temporal envelope https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/83 <p>Lower modulation rates in the temporal envelope (ENV) of the acoustic signal are believed to be the rhythmic backbone in speech, facilitating speech comprehension in terms of neuronal entrainments at δ- and θ-rates (these rates are comparable to the foot- and syllable-rates phonetically). The jaw plays the role of a carrier articulator regulating mouth opening in a quasi-cyclical way, which correspond to the low-frequency modulations as a physical consequence. This paper describes a method to examine the joint roles of jaw oscillation and ENV in realizing speech rhythm using spectral coherence. Relative powers in the frequency bands corresponding to the δ-and θ-oscillations in the coherence (respectively notated as %δ and %θ) were quantified as one possible way of revealing the amount of concomitant foot- and syllable-level rhythmicities carried by both acoustic and articulatory domains. Two English corpora (mngu0 and MOCHA-TIMIT) were used for the proof of concept. %δ and %θ were regressed on utterance duration for an initial analysis. Results showed that the degrees of foot- and syllable-sized rhythmicities are different and are contingent upon the utterance length.</p> Lei He Yu Zhang Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 7 2 e074 e074 10.3989/loquens.2020.074 Linguistic variables of Comprehensibility, Accentedness and Fluency in L2 Spanish: Listener type and ability level differences https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/84 <p>The aim of this study is to identify which linguistic variables are most strongly related to comprehensibility, accentedness and fluency in Spanish as L2, and how the results may also vary according to the type of listener (expert or non-expert) and to the speakers’ level of ability in these three dimensions. To this end, 40 native English speakers of Spanish orally described picture narratives that were subsequently rated by four groups of raters using 9-point Likert scales. The first two groups were composed of 109 novice and 42 expert raters assessing comprehensibility, accentedness and fluency. The last two groups consisted of 35 phoneticians and 35 linguistic raters responsible for analyzing and scoring a total of 14 speech measures (7 per group) targeting pronunciation, disfluencies, lexis, grammar and discourse. The results reveal that comprehensibility is associated with a wide range of elements, while accentedness is determined especially by segmentals, and fluency by speech rate. Additionally, the impact of linguistic parameters varies according to the speakers’ level of performance, and there are differences between novice and expert raters, with the former being more affected by pronunciation and the experts by lexis and grammar.</p> Enrique Santamaría Busto Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 7 2 e075 e075 10.3989/loquens.2020.075 Voices in audiodescription: Neutrality and pleasantness https://loquens.revistas.csic.es/index.php/loquens/article/view/86 <p>The aim of this study is to analyse the prosodic features of a corpus of audio descriptions in Spanish in order to determine the neutrality and the pleasantness in the prosody used by the speakers. The analysis involves a revision of the recommendations found in guidelines and standards on the voices of the audio describers. According to the Spanish standard by Asociación Española de Normalización (UNE 153020), speech in audio description (AD) must be neutral, and emotional intonation should be avoided.</p> <p>The corpus is obtained from professional male and female speakers. The duration, pitch and amplitude of AD units have been analysed. Then, a perception test has been carried out to assess the neutrality of the voices of the describers, which were chosen by means of an acoustic analysis, and the relationship between neutrality and pleasantness. Perception tests results were analysed taking into account two separate groups: on the one hand, persons with sight loss and, on the other hand, persons without sight loss. The results of this study can help to better select audio description voices depending on the specific task to be performed and can also help to identify differences depending on the user profile.</p> María J. Machuca Anna Matamala Antonio Ríos Copyright (c) 2021 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 7 2 e076 e076 10.3989/loquens.2020.076