Loquens, Vol 6, No 1 (2019)

Phonology and Writing: Can we look at written productions to “see the unseeable” in phonology?


https://doi.org/10.3989/loquens.2019.059

João Veloso
University of Porto, Portugal (FCT - UID/LIN/0022/2016), Portugal
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5070-8838

Abstract


Oral and written productions of language seem to correspond to ontologically separate entities. In this paper, we shall not argue against this basic assumption. However, it will be proposed that a careful examination of the writing systems and of particular written productions can provide phonologists with important information about the nature of phonological representations. Writing systems often originate in relevant intuitions about the nature of phonological units and phenomena and preserve the morphophonemic kinships between roots and words that are surfaced as phonetically distinct. The same can be said about the written productions of pre-school children and illiterate adults, strongly shaped by phonological intuitions rather than by orthographic convention. Bearing in mind that phonology, within the generative approach that is adopted here, is a form of knowledge, spelling can be accepted as a way of getting access to phonological knowledge. Therefore, our main point is that, in spite of the classical divide between spoken and written language, attention to writing can be useful for the understanding of the phonological level, too. The article includes two main parts: firstly, on Sections 2 and 3, we shall survey some general aspects of the relation between phonological and written representations; the second part consists mainly of Section 4 and attempts to illustrate some of the topics presented in Sections 2 and 3 with some data of a small-scale study with Portuguese pre-schoolers.

Keywords


phonological knowledge; literacy; writing systems; spelling; creative spelling

Full Text:


HTML PDF XML

References


Aaron, P. G. (1989). Orthographic systems and developmental dyslexia: A reformulation of the syndrome. In P. G. Aaron & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems (pp. 379-400). Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1041-6_22

Alcock, K. J., & Ngorosho, D. (2003). Learning to spell a regularly spelled language is not a trivial task-Patterns of errors in Kiswahili. Reading and Writing, 16(7), 635-666. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025824314378

Alegria, J., & Morais, J. (1979). Le développement de l'habileté d'analyse phonétique consciente de la parole et l'apprentissage de la lecture. Archives de Psychologie, 183, 251-270.

Alegria, J., Pignot, E., & Morais, J. (1982). Phonetic analysis of speech and memory codes in beginning readers. Memory and Cognition, 10(5), 451-456. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03197647 PMid:7176905

Bates, T. C., Castles, A., Luciano, M., Wright, M. J., Coltheart, M., & Martin, N. G. (2007). Genetic and environmental bases of reading and spelling: A unified genetic dual route model. Reading and Writing, 20(1-2), 147-171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-006-9022-1

Berman, R. A. (1983). On the study of first language acquisition. Language Learning, 33(5): 221-245. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1984.tb01331.x

Berthoud-Papandropoulou, I. (1980). La réflexion métalinguistique chez l'enfant. Genève: Imprimerie Nationale.

Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Booij, G. E. (1987). The reflection of linguistic structure in Dutch spelling. In P. A. Luelsdorff (Ed.), Orthography and phonology (pp. 215-224). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/z.29.11boo

Brédart, S., & Rondal, J.-A. (1982). L'analyse du langage chez l'enfant. Les activités métalinguistiques. Bruxelles: Pierre Mardaga.

Burton-Roberts, N., Carr, P., & Docherty, G. (2000) (Eds.). Phonological knowledge. Conceptual and empirical issues. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Çapan, S. (1989). A Linguistic study of reading and writing disorders in Turkish, an agglutinative language. In P. G. Aaron & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems (pp. 191-202). Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1041-6_11

Cazden, C. (1976). Play with language and meta-linguistic awareness. In A. J. Bruner & K. Sylva (Eds.), Play: Its role in development and evolution (pp. 603-608) New York: Basic Books.

Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.21236/AD0616323 PMid:14125365

Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on language. New York: Pantheon Books.

Chomsky, N. (1978). On the biological basis of language capacities. In G. A. Miller & E. Lenneberg (Eds.), Psychology and biology of language and thought. Essays in honor of Eric Lenneberg (pp. 199-220). New York: Academic Press.

Chomsky, N. (1986). Knowledge of language. Its nature, origin and use. New York: Praeger.

Chomsky, N. (1988). Language and problems of knowledge. The Managua lectures. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Chomsky, N., & Halle, M. (1968). The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.

Content, A. (1985). Le développement de l'habileté d'analyse phonétique de la parole. L'Année psychologique, 85(1), 73-99. https://doi.org/10.3406/psy.1985.29069

Coulmas, F. (2003). Writing systems. An introduction to their linguistic analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139164597

Crain, S., & Fodor, J. D. (1993). Competence and performance in child's language. In E. Dromi (Ed.), Language and cognition: A developmental perspective (pp. 141-171). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Daniels, P. T. (1992). The syllabic origin of writing and the segmental origin of the alphabet. In P. A. Downing, S. D. Lima, & M. Noonan (Eds.), The linguistics of literacy (pp. 83-110). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.21.10dan

Daniels, P. T. (2010a). Writing systems. In M. Aronoff & J. Rees-Miller (Eds.), The handbook of linguistics (pp. 43-80). Oxford: Blackwell.

Daniels, P. T. (2010b). Writing in the world and linguistics. Papers of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 36, pp. 61-90. https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v36i1.3903

Dijkstra, T., Grainger, J., & van Heuven, W. J. B. (1999). Recognition of cognates and interlingual homographs: The neglected role of phonology. Journal of Memory and Language, 41(4), 496-518. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1999.2654

Dijkstra, T., Timmermans, M., & Schriefers, H. (2000). On being blinded by your other language: Effects of task demands on interlingual homograph recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 42(4), 445-464. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1999.2697

Edwards, H. T., & Kirkpatrick, A. G. (1999). Metalinguistic awareness in children: A developmental progression. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 28(4), 313-329. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023275214000 PMid:10380659

Eysenck, M. W. (1994). Perspectives on psychology. Hove: Psychology Press.

Faber, A. (1990). Phonemic segmentation as epiphenomenon: Evidence from the history of alphabetic writing. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research. SR-101/102, 28-40.

Ferreiro, E., & Teberosky, A. (1984). Psicogênese da língua escrita. Porto Alegre RS: Artes Médicas.

Février, J. G. (1984). Histoire de l'écriture. Paris: Payot.

Fijalkow, J. (1982). Langage écrit. In J. A. Rondal & X. Seron (Eds.), Troubles du langage. Diagnostic et réeducation (pp. 63-81). Bruxelles: Pierre Mardaga.

Foss, D. J., & Hakes, D. T. (1978). Psycholinguistics. An introduction to the psychology of language. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Foster-Cohen, S. H. (1999). An Introduction to child language development. London: Longman.

Frost, R. (1989). Orthography and phonology: The psychological reality of orthographic depth. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research. SR-99/100, 162-171.

Frost, R., Repp, B. H., & Katz, L. (1988). Can speech perception be influenced by simultaneous presentation of print? Journal of Memory of Language, 27(6), 741-755. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(88)90018-6

Gelb, I. J. (1952). A study of writing. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Girolami-Boulinier, A., & Pinto, M. G. (1996). English, French and Portuguese spelling in the 4th school year. In S. Contento (Ed.), Psycholinguistics as a multidisciplinary connected science. Proceedings of the 4th ISAPL International Congress (pp. 35-40). Cesena/Bologna: Il Ponte Vecchio/Università degli Studi di Bologna.

Gleason Jr., H. A. (1955). An introduction to descriptive linguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Gombert, J. E. (1990). Le développement métalinguistique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Goswami, U., Ziegler, J. C., Dalton, L., & Schneider, W. (2003). Nonword reading across orthographies: How flexible is the choice of reading units? Applied Psycholinguistics, 24(2), 235-247. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716403000134

Grainger, J., Spinelli, E., & Ferrand, L. (2000). Effects of baseword frequency and orthographic neighborhood size in pseudohomophone naming. Journal of Memory and Language, 42(1), 88-102. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1999.2675

Hallé, P. A., Chéreau, C., & Segui, J. (2000). Where is the /b/ in "absurde" [apsyrd]? It is in French listeners' minds. Journal of Memory and Language, 43(4), 618-639. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2000.2718

Harris, M. (1992). Language experience and early language development. From input to uptake. Hove: Psychology Press.

Harris, M., & Giannouli, V. (1999). Learning to read and spell in Greek: The importance of letter knowledge and morphological awareness. In M. Harris & G. Hatano (Eds.), Learning to read and write. A cross-linguistic perspective (pp. 51-70). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Henriques, I. (2013). A fricativa coronal /S/ em /#(Ø)SC/ em português europeu [PhD Dissertation]. University of Porto, Portugal.

Jared, D. (1997). Spelling-sound consistency affects the naming of high-frequency words. Journal of Memory and Language, 36(4), 505-529. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1997.2496

Jespersen, O. (1924). The philosophy of grammar. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Kavanagh, J. F. (Ed.). (1991). The language continuum. From infancy to literacy. Parkton, MD: York Press.

Kaye, J. (1992). Do you believe in magic? The story of s+C sequences. SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics, 2, 293-313.

Klees, M. (1989). Developmental dyslexia in French language. In P. G. Aaron & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems (pp. 137-142). Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1041-6_7

Klima, E. S. (1972). How alphabets might reflect language. In J. F. Kavanagh & I. G. Mattingly (Eds.), Language by ear and by eye. The relationships between speech and reading (pp. 57-80). Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

Kohnen, S., Nickels, L., Coltheart, M., Brunsdon, & R. (2008). Predicting generalization in the training of irregular word spelling: Treating lexical spelling deficits in a child. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 25(3), 343-375. https://doi.org/10.1080/02643290802003000 PMid:18587700

Korkeamäki, R.-L. (1997). What can be learned about reading acquisition in the Finnish language. In C. K. Leong & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Cross-language studies of learning to read and spell. Phonologic and orthographic processing (pp. 331-359). Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1197-5_18

Kress, G. (2000). Early spelling. Between convention and creativity. London: Routledge.

Leão, D. N. (1576/1983). Ortografia da Língua Portuguesa. Ed. M. L. Carvalhão Buescu. Lisboa: INCM.

Leong, C. K., & Joshi, R. M. (1997). Relating phonologic and orthographic processing to learning to read and spell. In C. K. Leong & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Cross-language studies of learning to read and spell. Phonologic and orthographic processing (pp. 1-29). Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1197-5_1 PMid:9095526

Linell, P. (1982). The written language bias in linguistics. Linköping: Linköping University.

Luelsdorff, P. A. (Ed.). (1987). Orthography and phonology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/z.29

Luelsdorff, P. A. (1991). Developmental orthography. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/z.51

Martinet, A. (1960). Eléments de linguistique générale. Paris: Armand Colin.

Miranda, A. R. M., & Veloso, J. (2017). Consciência linguística: Aspetos fonológicos. In M. J. Freitas & A. L. Santos (Eds.), Aquisição de língua materna e não materna. Questões gerais e dados do português (pp. 439-458). Berlin: Language Science Press.

Morais, J., Alegria, J., & Content, A. (1987). The relationships between segmental analysis and alphabetic literacy: An interactive view. Cahiers de psychologie cognitive/European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology, 5, 415-438.

Morais, J., Cary, L., Alegria, J., & Bertelson, P. (1979). Does awareness of speech as a sequence of phones arise spontaneously? Cognition, 7(4), 323-331. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(79)90020-9

Morais, J., Kolinsky, R., &Nakamura, M. (1996). The psychological reality of speech units in Japanese. In T. Otake & A. Cutler (Eds.), Phonological structure and language processing: Cross-linguistic studies (pp. 203-216). Berlin : Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110815825.203

Morchio, B., Ott, M., & Pesenti, E. (1989). The Italian language: Developmental reading and writing problems. In P. G. Aaron & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems (pp. 143-161). Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1041-6_8

Nakamura, M., Kolinsky, R., Spagnoletti, C., & Morais, J. (1998). Phonemic awareness in alphabetically literate Japanese adults: The influence of the first acquired system. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition, 17(2), 417-450.

Olson, D. R. (1993). How writing represents speech. Language & Communication, 13(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309(93)90017-H

Peereman, R., & Content, A. (1997). Orthographic and phonological neighborhoods in naming: Not all neighbors are equally influential in orthographic space. Journal of Memory and Language, 37(3), 382-410. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1997.2516

Perfetti, C. A. (1997). The psycholinguistics of spelling and reading. In C. A. Perfetti, L. Rieben, & M. Fayol (Eds.), Learning to spell. Research, theory, and practice across languages (pp. 21-38). Mawhaw, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410604583

Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct. London: Penguin Books. https://doi.org/10.1037/e412952005-009

Porpodas, C. D. (1989). The phonological factor in reading and spelling of Greek. In P. G. Aaron & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems (pp. 177-190). Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1041-6_10

Pratt, C., & Grieve, R. (1984). The development of metalinguistic awareness: An introduction. In W. E. Tunmer, C. Pratt & M. L. Herriman (Eds.), Metalinguistic awareness in children (pp. 2-11). Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69113-3_1

Read, C. (1978). Children's awareness of language, with emphasis on sound systems. In A. Sinclair, R. J. Jarvella, & W. J. M. Levelt (Eds.), The child's conception of language (pp. 65-82). Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-67155-5_5

Reitsma, P. (1989). Orthographic memory and learning to read. In P. G. Aaron & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems (pp. 51-73). Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1041-6_3

Rogers, H. (2005). Writing systems. A linguistic approach. Oxford: Blackwell.

Saussure, F. (1916). Cours de Linguistique Générale. Edition critique préparée par Tullio de Mauro. Paris: Payot, 1980. [Cited in Coulmas (2003) as Saussure (1959).]

Scliar-Cabral, L., Morais, J., Nepomuceno, L., & Kolinsky, R. (1997). The awareness of phonemes: So close-so far away. International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 13, 211-240.

Sgall, P. (1987). Towards a theory of phonemic orthography. In P. A. Luelsdorff (Ed.), Orthography and phonology (pp. 1-30). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/z.29.03sga

Snowling, M. J. (1989). Developmental dyslexia: A cognitive developmental perspective. In P. G. Aaron & R. M. Joshi (Eds.). Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems (pp. 1-23). Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1041-6_1

Sprenger-Charolles, L., Siegel, L. S., & Béchennec, D. (1997). Beginning reading and spelling acquisition in French: A longitudinal study. In C. Perfetti, L. Rieben, & M. Fayol (Eds.), Learning to spell. Research, theory, and practice across languages (pp. 339-359). Mawhaw, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Suomi, K., & Ylitalo, R. (2004). On durational correlates of word stress in Finnish. Journal of Phonetics, 32(1), 35-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(03)00005-6

Taylor, I. (2002). Phonological awareness in Chinese reading. In W. Li, J. S. Gaffney, & J. L. Packard (Eds.), Chinese children's reading acquisition. Theoretical and pedagogical issues (pp 39-58). Boston, MA: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0859-5_3 PMid:12239980

Tunmer, W. E., & Herriman, M. L. (1984). The development of metalinguistic awareness: A conceptual overview. In W. E. Tunmer, C. Pratt, & M. L. Herriman (Eds.). Metalinguistic awareness in children. Theory, research, and implications (pp. 12-35). Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69113-3

Tunmer, W. E., Pratt, C., & Herriman, M. (1984). Preface. In W. E. Tunmer, C. Pratt, & M. L. Herriman (Eds.), Metalinguistic awareness in children. Theory, research, and implications (pp. vii-viii). Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69113-3

Valle-Arroyo, F. (1989). Reading errors in Spanish. In P. G. Aaron & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems (pp. 163-175). Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1041-6_9

Valtin, R. (1989). Dyslexia in the German language. In P. G. Aaron & R. M. Joshi (Eds Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems (pp. 119-135). Dordrecht: Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1041-6_6

Van Kleeck, A. (1982). The emergence of linguistic awareness: A cognitive framework. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 28(2), 237-265.

Veloso, J. (2005). A língua na escrita e a escrita da língua. Algumas considerações gerais sobre transparência e opacidade fonémicas na escrita do português e outras questões. Da Investigação às Práticas. Estudos de Natureza Educacional 6(1), 49-69.

Veloso, J. (2007). Da influência do conhecimento ortográfico sobre o conhecimento fonológico. Estudo longitudinal de um grupo de crianças falantes nativas do português europeu. München: Lincom Europa.

Veloso, J. (2010). Primeiras produções escritas e operações metafonológicas explícitas como pistas para a caracterização inferencial do conhecimento fonológico. Cadernos de Educação, 35, 19-50.

Villiers, J. G., & Villiers, P. A. (1978). Language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wimmer, H., & Landerl, K. (1997). How learning to spell German differs from learning to spell English. In C. A. Perfetti, L. Rieben, & M. Fayol (Eds.), Learning to spell. Research, theory, and practice across languages (pp. 81-96). Mawhaw, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Wimmer, H., Landerl, K., & Frith, U. (1999). Learning to read German: Normal and impaired acquisition. In M. Harris & G. Hatano (Eds.), Learning to read and write. A cross-linguistic perspective (pp. 34-50). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zuck, D. (1996). Inhibition with orthographically similar low-frequency word targets preceded by high-frequency primes. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 25(6), 643-658. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01712414




Copyright (c) 2019 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Contact: loquens@cchs.csic.es

Technical support: soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es